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Travel

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Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, ship or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip

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A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism.

These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level. These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing.

The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).

Definition

There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain. Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, spacing and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as “a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which, relatively to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable.”

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Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m (823 ft) from its base to its highest point.

Physical Geography states “Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres (2,000 ft) as mountains, those below being referred to as hills.”

Whittow’s Dictionary

Geology

There are three main types of mountainsvolcanicfold, and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth’s crust move, crumple, and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.

Volcanoes

Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, or at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab (due to the addition of water), and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it often builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US.

Fold mountains

Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust “floats” on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle. Thus the continental crust is normally much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas. Rock can fold either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains.

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Block mountains

Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane where rocks have moved past each other. When rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block mountains or horsts. The intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley. These areas often occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. …

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5 Spanish Cities that will make you fall in Love

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Spain is home to some of the most stunning architecture in Europe, known throughout the world for its distinguishable form and famous historical monuments. With influences from the Romans to the Moors, you’ll find each city has a unique architectural style.

From the classic Andalusian architecture of Seville and Córdoba, to the Moorish style of Granada, the elegant Baroque and Renaissance details in Salamanca, and the mix of Gothic and Modernista styles in Barcelona – here are five Spanish cities that will have you falling for their beautiful architecture.

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Seville

A medieval city, Seville is one of the most beautiful and most romantic in the country, largely due to its impressive architecture. Think tiny alleyways with whitewashed buildings, cobbled streets with overhanging, intricate wrought iron balconies, and charming boulevards with mansions painted orange and lemon. Begin your architectural tour in the old Jewish quarter of Barrio de Santa Cruz, walk along the Guadalquivir River and across the bridge to the old gypsy district of Triana, known for its ceramic and tile workshops.

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Some of Seville’s standout buildings include La Giralda, a Gothic cathedral with an Islamic minaret; the Plaza de España, created for the Ibero-American Expo of 1929 and flanked by sophisticated towers and small pavilions; the Moorish palace of the Real Alcázar; and the Plaza de Toros (bullring), one of the oldest in Spain, dating back to 1765. …